psychological dependence: In the science of addiction, psychological dependence refers to the psychological factors, including mood and motivation that help to sustain addictive behaviors (like craving a cigarette after a meal), as opposed to the physical dependence that manifests when a person attempts to stop using a particular substance (e.g., tremors, racing pulse). This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Scientists estimate that there are approximately 86 billion neurons in the human brain. While popular culture suggests that “hemispheric dominance,” or which side of the brain is more active, can help inform how an individual best learns, research does not support this idea. animal model: A laboratory animal that—through changes in its diet, exposure to toxins, genetic changes, or other experimental manipulations—mimics specific signs or symptoms of a human disease. electroencephalography (EEG): A method that measures electrical activity in the brain using small electrodes placed on the scalp. bipolar disorder: Also known as manic depression or manic-depressive disorder, bipolar disorder is characterized by unpredictable changes in mood, as well as energy and activity levels, that can interfere with everyday tasks. gyrus: The ridges on the brain’s outer surface. concussion: A type of mild traumatic brain injury resulting from a blow or hit to the head that causes the brain to move rapidly back and forth inside the skull. diffusion tensor imaging (DTI): A brain imaging method that helps visualize the brain’s white matter tracts by following the movement of water through tissues. Posner MI, Raichle ME. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. DNA contains the codes for the body’s approximately 30,000 genes, governing all aspects of cell growth and inheritance. In some circumstances, an abnormal neuroimmune response can damage brain tissue. Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, 24th Edition. Fun Fact: There are about 100 billion neurons in the head’s brain. Organisms could not function if they had no enzymes. brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF): Sometimes referred to as “brain fertilizer,” BDNF is a protein that helps promote the growth, maintenance, and survival of neurons. Mind-Body Approaches to Preventing Breast Cancer, Alter the “epigenetic” control of gene expression, or the non-DNA molecules that regulate how the DNA will be turned into proteins and shape brain growth. Narcotic drugs, such as morphine, imitate the actions of the body’s natural endorphins. Rapid and widespread neurogenesis obviously occurs in the fetal brain in humans and other animals, but neuroscientists long believed that neurogenesis essentially does not occur in the adult human brain. central nervous system: The brain and spinal cord constitute the central nervous system and are part of the broader nervous system, which also includes the peripheral nervous system. cortex: The outer layer of the cerebrum. autonomic nervous system: Part of the central nervous system that controls internal organ functions (e.g., blood pressure, respiration, intestinal function, urinary bladder control, perspiration, body temperature). For example, amyloid plaques—as detected on amyloid PET scans—are a biomarker of Alzheimer’s disease. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): A therapeutic treatment for depression and other mental illnesses that sends small electric currents over the scalp to trigger a brief seizure. Find research we’ve funded in neuroscience. cerebrum: The cerebrum is the largest brain structure in humans, accounting for about two-thirds of the brain’s mass and positioned over and around most other brain structures. It consists of an inner core of gray matter surrounded by white matter. reuptake: A process by which released neurotransmitters are absorbed for subsequent re-use. perception: The way the brain organizes, processes, and interprets sensory information to give rise to our ability to make sense of and navigate the world around us. central nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord corpus callosum a large bundle of nerve fibers (myelinated axons) that link the right and left hemispheres of the brain; enables the two hemispheres to share information (Sheep Brain Dissection) cranial nerve long term potentiation (LTP): The persistent strengthening of a synapse with increased use, thought to underlie learning and memory. NeuroEEG™, a miniature and wireless EEG device that fits in the palm of your hand. It lies primarily in the occipital lobe at the rear of the brain and is connected to the eyes by the optic nerves. Several dozen neurotransmitters have been identified in the brain so far, each with specific, often complex roles in brain function and human behavior. temporal lobes: The parts of the cerebrum that are located on either side of the head, roughly beneath the temples in humans. Your use of this Site constitutes your acceptance of these Terms. At the level of the spinal cord, caudal indicates the direction that points down towards the feet. spinal cord: The “other half” of the central nervous system (with the brain). While people may commonly equate brain tumors with cancer, many tumors are benign—but their location in the brain can still interfere with normal brain function. Smaller groupings (oligomers) of Aβ seem more toxic to brain cells and are thought by many researchers to play an important role in the Alzheimer’s disease process. Terms used generally derive from Latin or Greek roots and used to describe something in its standard anatomical position. It is used as a treatment for depression as well as a research method to investigate cognitive processes. Research studies suggest these caps may be shortened in neurodegenerative diseases. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder characterized by intellectual impairment and physical abnormalities that arises from the genome having an extra copy of chromosome 21. dyslexia: A learning disorder that affects the ability to understand and produce language. Caudal: directional term that means "towards the tail." Vanessa Chan, Claude Alain In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 13 November 2020 Chronic stress is linked to issues with mental and physical health. Neuroimmunology holds the potential for conquering ills as diverse as spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and bodily reactions to bacteria or viruses, both naturally occurring and intentionally inflicted. The globus pallidus or subthalamus Competition, terms that are located in one or the hemisphere... 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