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Before about 1930, European maps showed the highlands as uninhabited forests. A successive European claim occurred in 1828, when the Netherlands formally claimed the western half of the island as Netherlands New Guinea. The northern lowlands are drained principally by the Mamberamo River and its tributaries on the western side, and by the Sepik on the eastern side. In 1545, he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. Washington DC. Prior to the 1970s, archaeologists called the single Pleistocene landmass by the name Australasia,[12] although this word is most often used for a wider region that includes lands, such as New Zealand, which are not on the same continental shelf. Prevalent among traditional tribes is the belief in masalai, or evil spirits, which are blamed for "poisoning" people, causing calamity and death, and the practice of puripuri (sorcery).[105][106]. [60] The declaration of Hela and Jiwaka is a result of the largest liquefied natural gas[61] project in the country that is situated in both provinces. "Pre-LGM Sahul (Australia-New Guinea) and the archaeology of early modern humans,", CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Papua New Guinea Constitution Schedule 2.2.2. 2010. Prentice, M.L. The island of New Guinea lies to the east of the Malay Archipelago, with which it is sometimes included as part of a greater Indo-Australian Archipelago. In May 2019, O'Neill resigned as prime minister and was replaced through a vote of Parliament by James Marape. Provinces[58] are the primary administrative divisions of the country. [38] Sultan Nuku, one of the most famous Tidore sultans who rebelled against Dutch colonization, called himself "Sultan of Tidore and Papua",[39] during his revolt in 1780s. [117] The European Union has funded the Renewable Energy in Pacific Island Countries Developing Skills and Capacity programme (EPIC). Disputes between mining and forestry companies and landowner groups often devolve on the issue of whether the companies entered into contractual relations for the use of land with the true owners. It is, therefore, hoped to be a symbol for the entire country. Earthquakes are relatively common, sometimes accompanied by tsunamis. 2.3 in Marshall, A.J., and Beehler, B.M. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is an island nation in Oceania. The law underpinning the village courts is 'customary law'. [68] The land border comprises a segment of the 141° E meridian from the north coast southwards to where it meets the Fly River flowing east, then a short curve of the river's thalweg to where it meets the 141°01'10" E meridian flowing west, then southwards to the south coast. Approximately 216,000 Japanese, Australian and U.S. soldiers, sailors and airmen died during the New Guinea Campaign.[44]. The other beneficiaries are the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu.[116]. Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm with Elizabeth II as Queen of Papua New Guinea. [82], The PNG legislature has enacted laws in which a type of tenure called "customary land title" is recognised, meaning that the traditional lands of the indigenous peoples have some legal basis to inalienable tenure. Anti-Chinese rioting involving tens of thousands of people broke out in May 2009. We also uncovered many cases of senior officers facilitating the theft of Police land. The mainland of the country is the eastern half of New Guinea island, where the largest towns are also located, including Port Moresby (capital) and Lae; other major islands within Papua New Guinea include New Ireland, New Britain, Manus and Bougainville. It maintains close ties with Australia, which continues to be its largest aid donor. In addition to two international airfields, Papua New Guinea has 578 airstrips, most of which are unpaved.[3]. Papua New Guinea is one of the most heterogeneous nations in the world. The "underlying law" (Papua New Guinea's common law) consists of principles and rules of common law and equity in English[40] common law as it stood on 16 September 1975 (the date of independence), and thereafter the decisions of PNG's own courts. These plate interactions have given rise to rapid mountain growth, intense and frequent seismic events, creation of new crust at spreading centers, powerful volcanic eruptions, and destructive tsunamis. The four other universities which were once colleges were established recently after gaining government recognition. [14] These societies and clans are explicitly acknowledged by the Papua New Guinea Constitution, which expresses the wish for "traditional villages and communities to remain as viable units of Papua New Guinean society"[18] and protects their continuing importance to local and national community life. emerging industrial technology for downstream processing; infrastructure technology for the economic corridors; to reach the target of investing 5% of GDP in research and development by 2050. The expedition was also successful in capturing photographs and video footage of some other rare animals such as the Tenkile tree kangaroo and the Weimang tree kangaroo. Other than bats and some two dozen indigenous rodent genera,[19] there are no pre-human indigenous placental mammals. The country Papua New Guinea is located on the continent of Australia/Oceania. [13] There are 851 known languages in the country, of which 11 now have no known speakers. (2002). The process of forming such a coalition in PNG, where parties do not have much ideology, involves considerable "horse-trading" right up until the last moment. Since its inception in 2013, the programme has developed a master's programme in renewable energy management at the University of Papua New Guinea and helped to establish a Centre of Renewable Energy at the same university. Most societies practice agriculture, supplemented by hunting and gathering. When the Dutch colonized this island as part of the Dutch East Indies, they called it Nieuw Guinea. The initial spark was a fight between ethnic Chinese and indigenous workers at a nickel factory under construction by a Chinese company. [80], The PNG government's long-term Vision 2050 and shorter-term policy documents, including the 2013 Budget and the 2014 Responsible Sustainable Development Strategy, emphasise the need for a more diverse economy, based upon sustainable industries and avoiding the effects of Dutch disease from major resource extraction projects undermining other industries, as has occurred in many countries experiencing oil or other mineral booms, notably in Western Africa, undermining much of their agriculture sector, manufacturing and tourism, and with them broad-based employment prospects. [33] There is evidence that New Guinea gardeners invented crop rotation well before western Europeans. The maximum mean temperature in the lowlands is 30 to 32 ° C, and the minimum 23-24 ° C. In the highlands above 2100 meters, colder conditions prevail and night frosts are common there, while the daytime temperature exceeds 22° C, regardless of the season. This percentage is about the same amount as that found in the United States or Australia. [citation needed] The highest peak is Mount Wilhelm at 4,509 metres (14,793 ft). [46] The Indonesian courts' enforcement of the Law on Special Autonomy blocked further creation of subdivisions of Papua: although President Megawati Sukarnoputri was able to create a separate West Papua province in 2003 as a fait accompli, plans for a third province on western New Guinea were blocked by the courts. As of 2019, it is also the most rural, as only 13.25% of its people live in urban centres. Numerous smaller islands are located to the west and east. [7][8][9] Various other smaller mountain ranges occur both north and west of the central ranges. New Guinea’s western half comprises the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua and its eastern half comprises the major part of Papua New Guinea, an independent country since 1975. Those who become skilled at hunting, farming and fishing earn a great deal of respect. O’Connell, J. F., and J. Allen. It is the world's third largest island country with 462,840 km2 (178,700 sq mi).[12]. Following Tidore's defeat, much of the territory it claimed in western part of New Guinea came under Dutch rule as part of Dutch East Indies.[39]. [8] Most of the population of over 7 million people live in customary communities, which are as diverse as the languages. Politically, the western half of the island comprises two provinces of Indonesia: Papua and West Papua. The Dutch, who arrived later under Jacob Le Maire and Willem Schouten, called it Schouten island. Elsewhere, it is brides who traditionally pay a dowry. It is connected to the Australian segment by a shallow continental shelf across the Torres Strait, which in former ages lay exposed as a land bridge, particularly during ice ages when sea levels were lower than at present. These peoples had made the (shortened) sea-crossing from the islands of Wallacea and Sundaland (the present Malay Archipelago) by at least 40,000 years ago. It became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1975 with Elizabeth II as its queen. The flora of New Guinea is a mixture of many tropical rainforest species with origins in Asia, together with typically Australasian flora. Papua New Guinea is an island nation in Oceania located in southwestern Pacific Ocean. [9] It is also one of the most rural, as only 18 per cent of its people live in urban centres. The nation established independence from Australia on 16 September 1975, becoming a Commonwealth realm, continuing to share Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. In addition, section 67 (2)(c) mentions "speak and understand Pisin or Hiri Motu, or a vernacular of the country, sufficiently for normal conversational purposes" as a requirement for citizenship by nationalisation; this is again mentioned in section 68(2)(h). In 1905, the British government transferred some administrative responsibility over southeast New Guinea to Australia (which renamed the area "Territory of Papua"); and, in 1906, transferred all remaining responsibility to Australia. Many Papua New Guineans have become celebrities by representing their country or playing in an overseas professional league. [49], "Irian" redirects here. It is known to have numerous groups of uncontacted peoples, and researchers believe there are many undiscovered species of plants and animals in the interior. New Guinea (Tok Pisin: Niugini; Hiri Motu: Niu Gini; Indonesian: Papua, historically Irian) is the world's second-largest island and, with an area of 785,753 km (303,381 sq mi), the largest island wholly or partly within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania. The eastern half forms the mainland of the country of Papua New Guinea. [14] The two landmasses became separated when the area now known as the Torres Strait flooded after the end of the last glacial period. The island of New Guinea, comprising the Independent State of Papua New Guinea in the east. [36][37] The sultans of Tidore, in Maluku Islands, claimed sovereignty over various coastal parts of the island. For the single by The Future Sound of London, see, Largest cities and towns in Papua New Guinea. [90] They represent 0.25% of the total population of Papua New Guinea. There are several active volcanoes, and eruptions are frequent. [95] Indigenous languages are classified into two large groups, Austronesian languages and non-Austronesian, or Papuan, languages. [3] The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies, ultimately meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. Papua New Guinea is a sovereign state in Oceania that is well known for its natural beauty, cultural diversity, pristine beaches, and mountainous terrain. Neighbouring countries are: Indonesia. The name was promoted in 1945 by Marcus Kaisiepo,[2] brother of the future governor Frans Kaisiepo. At its gathering in November 2014, the Council re-emphasised the need to focus on sustainable development through science and technology. The referendum question was a choice between greater autonomy within Papua New Guinea and full independence for Bougainville, and voters voted overwhelmingly (98.31%) for independence. … [35], The western part of the island was in contact with kingdoms in other parts of modern-day Indonesia. People of the highlands engage in colourful local rituals that are called "sing sings". (eds.). The nation has 22 province-level divisions: twenty provinces, the Autonomous Region of Bougainville and the National Capital District. The eastern half of the island is the major land mass o… Nine out of ten were also co-authored by scientists from other countries, mainly Australia, the United States of America, United Kingdom, Spain and Switzerland. Anthropologically, New Guinea is considered part of Melanesia.[15]. One major project conducted through the PNG Department for Community Development suggested that other pathways to sustainable development should be considered. [45][46] A 2013 study in The Lancet found that 27% of men on Bougainville Island reported having raped a non-partner, while 14.1% reported having committed gang rape. Papua New Guinea (and the Solomon Islands) are unusual among Commonwealth realms in that governors-general are elected by the legislature, rather than chosen by the executive branch. The territory was renamed West Irian and then Irian Jaya. Buy and sell property in Papua New Guinea. The territories under Australian administration became collectively known as The Territories of Papua and New Guinea (until February 1942). The Constitution of Papua New Guinea is the supreme law in the country and is an entrenched constitution in which all ordinary statutory enactments are subordinate to its provisions. This problem will be partially corrected when all of the larger Guardian-class patrol boats enter service. [70] In the Torres Strait it runs close to the mainland of New Guinea, keeping the adjacent North Western Torres Strait Islands (Dauan, Boigu and Saibai) under Australian sovereignty. Cities []. Many writers portray land as in the communal ownership of traditional clans; however, closer studies usually show that the smallest portions of land whose ownership cannot be further divided are held by the individual heads of extended families and their descendants or their descendants alone if they have recently died. Yet the two land masses share a similar animal fauna, with marsupials, including wallabies and possums, and the egg-laying monotreme, the echidna. Also about 600 species of reef-building coral—the latter equal to 75 percent of the world's known total. [39] The monarch is represented by the Governor-General of Papua New Guinea, currently Bob Dadae. The more extensive southern lowlands are drained by a larger number of rivers, principally the Digul in the west and the Fly in the east. [113] This includes 500 schools of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Papua New Guinea. During World War I, Australian forces seized German New Guinea, which in 1920 became the Territory of New Guinea, to be administered by Australia under a League of Nations mandate. The other indigenous peoples are Austronesians, their ancestors having arrived in the region less than four thousand years ago. 88 no. Papua New Guinea, officially named the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea (the western portion of the island is a part of the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua) and numerous offshore islands. [49], The 1971 Sorcery Act imposed a penalty of up to 2 years in prison for the practice of "black" magic, until the act was repealed in 2013. [68] The 141° E meridian formed the entire eastern boundary of Dutch New Guinea according to its 1828 annexation proclamation. Human habitation of New Guinea over tens of thousands of years has led to a great deal of diversity, which was further increased by the later arrival of the Austronesians and the more recent history of European and Asian settlement through events like transmigration. [27], According to the WWF, New Guinea can be divided into twelve terrestrial ecoregions:[28], The WWF and Nature Conservancy divide New Guinea into five freshwater ecoregions:[29], The WWF and Nature Conservancy identify several marine ecoregions in the seas bordering New Guinea:[30], The first inhabitants, from whom the Papuan people are probably descended, adapted to the range of ecologies and, in time, developed one of the earliest known agricultures. Most of these cultural groups have their own language. They can be divided into two groups, the Austronesian languages, and all the others, called Papuan languages for convenience. Elections in PNG attract numerous candidates. In the period from 1998 to 2008, conservationists identified 1,060 new species in New Guinea, including 218 plants, 43 reptiles, 12 mammals, 580 invertebrates, 134 amphibians, 2 birds and 71 fish. Australia finally broke free from Antarctica about 45 million years ago. It is also a member of APEC and an ACP country, associated with the European Union. [24] Between 2011 and 2017, researchers described 465 previously undocumented plant species in New Guinea. It can only be inherited according to the custom of the deceased's people. New Guinea, Papua New Guinea, -8.95°S / 148.15°E Current status: normal or dormant (1 out of 5) Last update: 29 Jan 2013 (uncertain reports about ash emissions on 25 March) Mt Lamington volcano is a large andesitic stratovolcano within sight of the provincial capital Popondetta north of the Owen Stanley Range. The eastern half of the island is the major land mass of the independent state of Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Time (PGT) is 10 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Many of the other islands within PNG territory, including New Britain, New Ireland, Bougainville, the Admiralty Islands, the Trobriand Islands, and the Louisiade Archipelago, were never linked to New Guinea by land bridges. 17 7694–7698. Papua New Guinea is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Pacific Community, Pacific Islands Forum, and the Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) of countries. The Austronesian people had technology and skills extremely well adapted to ocean voyaging and Austronesian language speaking people are present along much of the coastal areas and islands of New Guinea. [67] Papua New Guinea is one of the few regions close to the equator that experience snowfall, which occurs in the most elevated parts of the mainland. [93][94]The most widely spoken indigenous language is Enga, with about 200,000 speakers, followed by Melpa and Huli. The island is so large that it is considered 'nearly a continent' in terms of its biological distinctiveness. According to the CIA World Factbook (2018),[91] Papua New Guinea has the second lowest urban population percentage in the world, with 13.2%, only behind Burundi. Currently observing PGT. This restriction on votes of no confidence has arguably resulted in greater stability, although perhaps at a cost of reducing the accountability of the executive branch of government. Its design is that of a woven basket, a common feature of all groups and cultures in PNG. Continents: Earth has seven continents. The western half of the island contains the highest mountains in Oceania, with its highest point, Puncak Jaya, reaching an elevation of 4,884 m (16,023 ft). In 1545, Spaniard Íñigo Ortíz de Retes sailed along the north coast of New Guinea as far as the Mamberamo River, near which he landed on 20 June, naming the island 'Nueva Guinea'. [24] A major migration of Austronesian-speaking peoples to coastal regions of New Guinea took place around 500 BC. Countries near Papua New Guinea include Federated States of Micronesia, Solomon Islands, Palau and Australia. Except in high elevations, most areas possess a warm humid climate throughout the year, with some seasonal variation associated with the northeast monsoon season. This article incorporates text from a free content work. Candidates for members of parliament are voted upon when the prime minister asks the governor-general to call a national election, a maximum of five years after the previous national election. [2] Its etymology is unclear;[2] one theory states that it derived from Tidore, the language used by the Sultanate of Tidore, which controlled parts of the island's coastal region. Non-traditional Christian churches and non-Christian religious groups are active throughout the country. Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world. . After the war, in which Germany and the Central Powers were defeated, the League of Nations authorised Australia to administer this area as a League of Nations mandate territory that became the Territory of New Guinea. Research indicates that the highlands were an early and independent center of agriculture, with evidence of irrigation going back at least 10,000 years. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the most tectonically dynamic and complex locales in the world. The only area where Tok Pisin is not prevalent is the southern region of Papua, where people often use the third official language, Hiri Motu. Because of this diversity, many styles of cultural expression have emerged. [84], Only some 3% of the land of Papua New Guinea is in private hands; this is privately held under 99-year state lease, or it is held by the State. Ch. In contrast to establishing an Australian mandate in former German New Guinea, the League of Nations determined that Papua was an external territory of the Australian Commonwealth; as a matter of law it remained a British possession. Coffee remains the major export crop (produced largely in the Highlands provinces); followed by cocoa and coconut oil/copra from the coastal areas, each largely produced by smallholders; tea, produced on estates; and rubber. They are mostly represented by the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Papua New Guinea, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, diverse Pentecostal denominations, the United Church in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, the Evangelical Alliance Papua New Guinea, and the Anglican Church of Papua New Guinea. Its mainland on … New Guinea is differentiated from its drier, flatter,[16] and less fertile[17][18] southern counterpart, Australia, by its much higher rainfall and its active volcanic geology. Even today the two largest cities, Port Moresby and Lae, are only directly connected by planes. [12] Then, at a 1975 conference and consequent publication,[13] they extended the name Sahul from its previous use for just the Sahul Shelf to cover the continent.[12]. [3] The name was used until 2001, when Papua was again used for the island and the province. Papua New Guinea Pharmaceutical Country Profile Published by the Ministry of Health in collaboration with the World Health Organization January 2012 Any part of this document may be freely reviewed, quoted, reproduced, or translated in full or in part, provided that the source is acknowledged. With some 786,000 km2 of tropical land—less than one-half of one percent (0.5%) of the Earth's surface—New Guinea has an immense biodiversity, containing between 5 and 10 percent of the total species on the planet. The difference in legal status meant that until 1949, Papua and New Guinea had entirely separate administrations, both controlled by Australia. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}6°S 147°E / 6°S 147°E / -6; 147, Papua New Guinea (PNG; /ˈpæp(j)uə ... ˈɡɪni, ˈpɑː-/, also US: /ˈpɑːpwə-, ˈpɑːpjə-, ˈpɑːpə-/;[11] Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea (Tok Pisin: Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in Oceania that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. During the 1950s, the Dutch government began to prepare Netherlands New Guinea for full independence and allowed elections in 1959; the elected New Guinea Council took office on 5 April 1961. These plant families are still present in Papua New Guinea. Including all its islands, it lies between latitudes 0° and 12°S, and longitudes 140° and 160°E. The two founding universities are the University of Papua New Guinea, based in the National Capital District,[115] and the Papua New Guinea University of Technology, based outside of Lae, in Morobe Province. Geologically, the island of New Guinea is a northern extension of the Indo-Australian tectonic plate, forming part of a single land mass which is Australia-New Guinea (also called Sahul or Meganesia). (There is no recent data for this indicator. Former Prime Minister Sir Mekere Morauta tried to restore integrity to state institutions, stabilise the kina, restore stability to the national budget, privatise public enterprises where appropriate, and ensure ongoing peace on Bougainville following the 1997 agreement which ended Bougainville's secessionist unrest. [34] A unique feature of New Guinea permaculture is the silviculture of Casuarina oligodon, a tall, sturdy native ironwood tree, suited to use for timber and fuel, with root nodules that fix nitrogen. Bougainville had been the primary mining region of the country, generating 40% of the national budget. As a result, product ranges are limited to sawed timber, veneer, plywood, block board, moulding, poles and posts and wood chips. The island's frogs are one of the most poorly known vertebrate groups, totalling 282 species, but this number is expected to double or even triple when all species have been documented. New Guinea, island of the eastern Malay Archipelago, in the western Pacific Ocean, north of Australia. Wikipedia, please see this how-to page ranges occur both north and West.! More Guardian-class patrol boats are under close watch, in its own right large! ( until February 1942 ). [ 32 ] after gaining government recognition than bats and two... 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